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The Institution

The Federal Planning Bureau (FPB) is an independent public agency. It draws up studies and projections on economic, social and environmental policy issues and on the integration of these policies within a context of sustainable development.

Caroline Hambye

Caroline Hambÿe has been working at the Federal Planning Bureau since 1995 in the Sectoral and environmental accounts and analyses team. As part of this, she contributes to the drawing up of the supply and use tables and the input-output tables of Belgium. More specifically, she is responsible for the food and beverage industry. In addition, she focuses on the various analyses based on the input-output models, such as multipliers and linkages.




  • Sectoral and environmental accounts and analyses
  • Value chain integration of export-oriented and domestic market manufacturing firms - An analysis based on a heterogeneous input-output table for Belgium

    For a finer analysis of competitiveness and value chain integration, this working paper presents a micro-data based breakdown of manufacturing industries in the 2010 Belgian supply-and-use and input-output tables into export-oriented and domestic market firms. The former are defined as those firms that export at least 25% of their turnover. Analyses based on the resulting export-heterogeneous IOT reveal differences between the two in terms of input structures and import behaviour: export-oriented manufacturers have lower value-added in output shares, and they import proportionally more of the intermediates they use. Moreover, exports of export-oriented manufacturers generate a substantial amount of value added in other Belgian firms, in particular providers of services. The policy implication of these results is that Belgium’s external competitiveness depends not only on exporters but also on firms that mainly serve the domestic market. To maximise the impact of export promotion in terms of domestically generated value added, the entire value chain for the production of exports must be taken into account.

    Working Paper 11-18 [26/09/2018]
  • Belgium’s Carbon Footprint - Calculations based on a national accounts consistent global multi-regional input-output table

    The traditional attribution of responsibility for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to producing countries may be distorted by international trade flows as importing emission-intensive commodities contributes to reducing a country’s production-based emissions. This has motivated the calculation of carbon footprints that measure the amount of domestic and foreign GHG emissions (directly and indirectly) embodied in commodities intended for final consumption by a country’s residents. In this
    working paper, we present carbon footprint estimations for Belgium based on global multi-regional input-output (MRIO) tables that have been made consistent with detailed Belgian national accounts. According to our calculations, Belgium’s carbon footprint is substantially higher than its productionbased emissions, which means that Belgium is a net importer of GHG emissions. Moreover, our results show that consistency with detailed national accounts does matter for MRIO-based carbon footprint calculations, in particular for a small open economy like Belgium.

    Working Paper 10-17 [28/09/2017]
  • Analyse du tableau input-output interrégional pour l’année 2010
    Analyse van de interregionale input-outputtabel voor het jaar 2010

    This working paper presents two analytical applications based on the interregional input-output (IO) table for Belgium for the year 2010. The Federal Planning Bureau constructed this table in 2015 in cooperation with the statistical authorities of the country’s three Regions (IBSA, SVR and IWEPS). The following standard IO analyses based on applying the Leontief model to the interregional IO table are presented here: the derivation of multipliers for each region and the estimation of regional value added and regional employment generated by domestic final demand and exports.

    Working Paper 05-16 [29/04/2016]
  • Een economische analyse van de sector van alcoholische dranken in België
    Une analyse économique du secteur des boissons alcoolisées en Belgique

    This paper analyses the importance of the production of alcoholic beverages for the Belgian economy, with a particular focus on beer. First, the paper provides an outline of the recent development of production, imports, exports and domestic use of alcoholic beverages. This product analysis is complemented by a study of the branch of alcoholic beverages in which production, added value, investments and employment are discussed. Finally, production, revenue and employment multipliers are calculated using the input-output tables for the year 2010, as well as the total contribution of the whole production and distribution chain of the produced and imported alcoholic beverages to Belgian GDP and employment.

    Working Paper 02-16 [14/01/2016]
  • Tableaux Entrées-Sorties 2010
    Input-outputtabellen 2010

    Input-Output Table 2010 [20/12/2013]
  • Les multiplicateurs de production, de revenu et d’emploi 1995-2005 - Une analyse entrées-sorties à prix constants

    This Working paper presents the output, income and employment multipliers of the final demand in Belgium over the period 1995-2005. It exploits a consistent time series of input-output tables at constant prices for the years 1995, 2000 and 2005, which allows, for the first time in Belgium, to study the evolution of final demand multipliers without methodological break and without price effects.

    Working Paper 08-13 [23/09/2013]
  • Analyse entrées-sorties - Modèles, Multiplicateurs, Linkages
    Input-outputanalyse - Modellen, Multiplicatoren, Linkages

    Since 1994, the Federal Planning Bureau is responsible for drawing up the five-year input-output tables for Belgium. These tables are a unique tool for analysing the interdependences between the branches of the Belgian economy. When integrated in an input-output model, they provide rapidly different synthetic measures of the interdependences. The WP presents two classic applications of the IO models : multipliers and linkage measures.

    Working Paper 12-12 [15/10/2012]
  • Supply and Use Tables and Input-Output Tables 1995-2007 for Belgium - Methodology of Compilation

    Users of Supply and Use Tables (SUT) and Input-Output Tables (IOT) compiled in different national accounts (NA) vintages face a problem of consistency of their data due to revisions in the NA. This paper describes the methodology that has been followed to compile a consistent time series of Belgian SUT and IOT for the period 1995-2007, in line with the NA published in November 2010.

    Working Paper 06-12 [24/05/2012]
  • Analyse du secteur Horeca en Belgique
    Analyse van de horecasector in België

    This Working Paper gives an overall picture of the horeca industry in Belgium. The study focuses in particular on aspects of business demography, the importance of the sector for the Belgian economy, its development since the mid‐nineties and the financial health of horeca companies. Since the provision of horeca services is a very labour‐intensive activity, special  attention is paid to employment features.

    Working Paper 01-11 [01/02/2011]
  • Tableaux Entrées-Sorties de la Belgique pour 2005
    Input-outputtabellen van België voor 2005

    Input-Output Table 2005 [20/05/2010]
  • Supply and Use Tables for Belgium 1995-2002 : Methodology of Compilation

    This paper presents the methodology for the compilation of a time series of supply and use tables for Belgium in current and constant prices for the period 1995-2002. These data have been produced at the Belgian Federal Planning Bureau within the framework of the EUKLEMS project and constitute an input for the project’s productivity database. The compilation of the time series was based on national accounts data and existing supply and use tables. The methodology consisted in splitting several industries and products, adapting existing data to the latest national accounts revisions, estimating missing tables as well as deflating current price supply and use tables.

    Working Paper 04-07 [05/03/2007]
  • Tableaux Entrées-Sorties de la Belgique pour 2000
    Input-output-tabellen van België voor 2000

    Input-Output Table 2000 [28/01/2005]
  • Analyse du secteur Horeca
    Analyse van de horecasector

    Working Paper 21-04 [23/12/2004]
  • Tableaux Entrées-Sorties de la Belgique pour 1995
    Input-output-tabellen van België voor 1995

    Input-Output Table 1995 [28/02/2003]
  • Impact économique de la crise de la dioxine

    Working Paper 04-99 [15/07/1999]
  • The 1990 input-output table

    Input-Output Table 1990 [15/06/1999]
  • The 1985 input-output table

    Input-Output Table 1985 [15/10/1998]
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