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To promote transparency and provide information, the Federal Planning Bureau regularly publishes the methods and results of its works. The publications are organised in different series, such as Outlooks, Working Papers and Planning Papers. Some reports can be consulted here, along with the Short Term Update newsletters that were published until 2015. You can search our publications by theme, publication type, author and year.

Documents (21)


  • Multinational groups in Belgium – Structure and economic activity 31/05/2022

    A macro-economic analysis of the activity of multinational groups is of particular interest for economic policy in a country like Belgium with a longstanding tradition of openness to foreign investment. This working paper combines a database of enterprise groups that are active in Belgium with industry-level data from the national accounts to show that multinational groups play an important role in the Belgian economy. Together, foreign affiliates and firms that are part of a Belgian multinational group account for more than 40% of GDP, 25% of total employment and 75% of exports.

    Planning & Working Papers - WP 05-22  Publication(fr),



  • Input-Output Tables 2015 20/12/2019

    The National Accounts Institute (NAI) presents in this publication a new version of the input-output tables at current prices for the year 2015, compiled according to the ESA 2010 methodology. Compared to the first version of the 2015 input-output tables published in December 2018, the tables presented here incorporate the occasional revision of the national accounts implemented by Belgium in 2019.

    Others - OTH_IOT2015BIS  Publication(fr), Publicatie(nl),

  • Updating the 2010 Belgian interregional supply and use table - Towards a version compatible with ESA 2010 25/10/2019

    This paper describes the methodology to make the existing interregional supply and use table (ISUT) of 2010 compatible to ESA2010/SNA2008 rules and shows the results at a macro level. The ISUT describes, for each product and industry, all intra- and interregional flows caused by the intermediate use, final consumption expenditures, investments and exports of the three Belgian regions Brussels, Flanders and Wallonia. 

    Planning & Working Papers - WP 10-19  Publication(en),


  • Input-Output Tables 2015 21/12/2018

    In accordance with the Law of 21 December 1994, the Federal Planning Bureau (FPB) is responsible for drawing up the five-yearly input-output tables within the framework of the National Accounts Institute. In this publication, the Input-Output Tables for the year 2015 at current prices are presented. These tables have been compiled according to the ESA 2010 methodology and the NACE Rev. 2/ CPA 2.1 classification.

    Others - OTH_IOT2015  Publication(fr), Publicatie(nl),

  • Value chain integration of export-oriented and domestic market manufacturing firms - An analysis based on a heterogeneous input-output table for Belgium 26/09/2018

    For a finer analysis of competitiveness and value chain integration, this working paper presents a micro-data based breakdown of manufacturing industries in the 2010 Belgian supply-and-use and input-output tables into export-oriented and domestic market firms. The former are defined as those firms that export at least 25% of their turnover. Analyses based on the resulting export-heterogeneous IOT reveal differences between the two in terms of input structures and import behaviour: export-oriented manufacturers have lower value-added in output shares, and they import proportionally more of the intermediates they use. Moreover, exports of export-oriented manufacturers generate a substantial amount of value added in other Belgian firms, in particular providers of services. The policy implication of these results is that Belgium’s external competitiveness depends not only on exporters but also on firms that mainly serve the domestic market. To maximise the impact of export promotion in terms of domestically generated value added, the entire value chain for the production of exports must be taken into account.

    Planning & Working Papers - Working Paper 11-18  Publication(en),


  • Belgium’s Carbon Footprint - Calculations based on a national accounts consistent global multi-regional input-output table 28/09/2017

    The traditional attribution of responsibility for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to producing countries may be distorted by international trade flows as importing emission-intensive commodities contributes to reducing a country’s production-based emissions. This has motivated the calculation of carbon footprints that measure the amount of domestic and foreign GHG emissions (directly and indirectly) embodied in commodities intended for final consumption by a country’s residents. In this
    working paper, we present carbon footprint estimations for Belgium based on global multi-regional input-output (MRIO) tables that have been made consistent with detailed Belgian national accounts. According to our calculations, Belgium’s carbon footprint is substantially higher than its productionbased emissions, which means that Belgium is a net importer of GHG emissions. Moreover, our results show that consistency with detailed national accounts does matter for MRIO-based carbon footprint calculations, in particular for a small open economy like Belgium.

    Planning & Working Papers - Working Paper 10-17  Publication(en),




  • Supply and Use Tables and Input-Output Tables 1995-2007 for Belgium - Methodology of Compilation 24/05/2012

    Users of Supply and Use Tables (SUT) and Input-Output Tables (IOT) compiled in different national accounts (NA) vintages face a problem of consistency of their data due to revisions in the NA. This paper describes the methodology that has been followed to compile a consistent time series of Belgian SUT and IOT for the period 1995-2007, in line with the NA published in November 2010.

    Planning & Working Papers - Working Paper 06-12  Publication(en),


  • Homogenising detailed employment data 05/04/2011

    In the national accounts labour inputs are collected by industry. Homogenising means transforming labour inputs by industry into labour inputs by product. This homogenisation is done using mathematical techniques. The paper compares the results for two wellknown techniques (product technology and industry technology) and discusses the effects of homogenisation on Belgian data for the years 2000 and 2005. Labour inputs are detailed by gender and education level. An additional distinction is made between employees and self-employed. The paper proposes a solution for the negatives problem that arises when applying the product technology model in the case of self-employed workers. It also assesses the plausibility of results by showing the effects of homogenising on wage costs and value added per head as well as on the ranking of industries by education level. The product and the industry technology model yield significantly different results, most particularly for the employment use of wholesale and retail trade. The results of the product technology model are judged to be most plausible.

    Planning & Working Papers - Working Paper 06-11  Publication(en),




  • Supply and Use Tables for Belgium 1995-2002 : Methodology of Compilation 05/03/2007

    This paper presents the methodology for the compilation of a time series of supply and use tables for Belgium in current and constant prices for the period 1995-2002. These data have been produced at the Belgian Federal Planning Bureau within the framework of the EUKLEMS project and constitute an input for the project’s productivity database. The compilation of the time series was based on national accounts data and existing supply and use tables. The methodology consisted in splitting several industries and products, adapting existing data to the latest national accounts revisions, estimating missing tables as well as deflating current price supply and use tables.

    Planning & Working Papers - Working Paper 04-07  Publication(en),



  • The Use Tables for Imported Goods and for Trade Margins - An Integrated Approach to the Compilation of the Belgian 1995 Tables 03/03/2003

    This paper describes the compilation of the use tables for imports of goods and for trade margins for Belgium in 1995. It introduces a methodological novelty by integrating the compilation of both tables and systematically exploiting the fact that large parts of intermediary consumption and investment (i.e. those directly imported by the using firms) as well as exports (the direct exports by producers) bear no trade margins.

    In order to do this we used intrastat and extrastat data on imports and exports of goods in 1995. The results of this approach differ significantly from those of a proportional distribution of imports and margins. Many statistical offices resort to this proportional distribution because of a lack of survey data on the destination of trade margins and imports. In Belgium the proportional approach is less appropriate because the product detail is too limited and the national account data are firm-based without distinguishing local kind of activities.

    Planning & Working Papers - Working Paper 04-03  Publication(en),



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