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Publications

Dans un souci de transparence et d’information, le BFP publie régulièrement les méthodes et résultats de ses travaux. Les publications sont organisées en séries, entre autres, les perspectives, les working papers et planning papers. Certains rapports peuvent également être consultés ici, de même que les bulletins du Short Term Update publiés jusqu’en 2015. Une recherche par thématique, type de publication, auteur et année vous est proposée.

Documents (63)

2010

  • La part de marché à l’exportation de la Belgique 1993-2008 : changements structurels et compétitivité 23/03/2010

    La Belgique a perdu des parts de marché à l’exportation de biens manufacturés au cours de la dernière décennie. La décomposition de cette perte par la méthode de la ‘Constant Market Shares Analysis’ révèle que cela provient surtout d’une faiblesse structurelle. L’orientation géographique très défavorable des exportations de la Belgique est à la base de pertes de parts de marché qui ne sont que partiellement compensés par les gains grâce à la spécialisation produit favorable. Il s’ajoute à cela une perte de compétitivité modérée.

    Planning & Working Papers - Working Paper 06-10  Publication(fr),

2009

  • Alternative assessment of Belgian competitiveness 06/10/2009

    This paper investigates the relationship between the relative positions, in terms of value added and relative prices, of Belgian manufacturing and market services in the European Union over 1970-2005. Relative prices are then broken down into relative unit costs of production factors. The analysis goes further by decomposing relative unit labour cost into relative hourly wages and relative productivity. Finally, relative productivity is broken down into relative capital deepening, relative labour
    composition effect and relative total factor productivity.

    Articles - Article 2009100605  

  • Alternative assessment of Belgian competitiveness 15/09/2009

    Ce document analyse graphiquement et économétriquement la relation entre la position relative, en termes de valeur ajoutée et de prix, de la manufacture et des services marchands belges dans l'Union européenne des Quinze sur la période 1970-2005. Les prix relatifs sont ensuite décomposés en coûts relatifs des facteurs de production. L'étude se poursuit en remplaçant les coûts unitaires relatifs du travail par les salaires horaires relatifs et les productivités relatives. Finalement, les productivités relatives sont remplacées par leurs composantes, c'est-à-dire les intensités capitalistiques relatives, les effets relatifs de composition de la main-d'œuvre et les productivités totales relatives des facteurs. Toutes les données utilisées sont extraites de la base de données EUKLEMS dans sa version de mars 2008.

    Planning & Working Papers - Working Paper 09-09  Publication(en),

  • The impact of offshoring on employment in Belgium 02/03/2009

    Worries about massive job losses have prompted a fast-growing literature on offshoring and its impact on employment in advanced economies. This paper examines the situation for Belgium. The offshoring intensity is computed as the share of imported intermediate inputs in output, based on a series of constant price supply- and-use tables for 1995-2003. Estimations of static and dynamic industry-level labour demand equations augmented by offshoring intensities, do not reveal a significant impact of either materials or business services offshoring on total employment for Belgium between 1995 and 2003, but this does not preclude a differential impact by skill-level.

    Articles - Article 2009030203  

  • The impact of offshoring on employment in Belgium 23/01/2009

    Dans le contexte d’une globalisation économique croissante, les délocalisations font craindre des pertes massives d’emplois dans les pays industrialisés. Ce Working Paper évalue la situation pour la Belgique en étudiant l’impact des délocalisations sur l’emploi dans notre pays pour la période de 1995 à 2003. L’intensité des délocalisations est mesurée par la part des importations d’inputs intermédiaires dans la production et cette part est calculée pour les biens – afin de mesurer les délocalisations d’activités industrielles – et pour les services afin de mesurer les délocalisations d’activités de services aux entreprises. Elle est nettement plus élevée pour les biens (13% en 2003) que pour les services (2% en 2003) confirmant que les délocalisations ont traditionnellement visées des activités industrielles. Cependant, la croissance des délocalisations d’activités de services a été plus forte entre 1995 et 2003 que celle des délocalisations d’activités industrielles. L’impact sur l’emploi est estimé à l’aide d’équations de demande de travail qui incluent ces intensités des délocalisations. Les résultats montrent que ni les délocalisations d’activités industrielles ni celles d’activités de services ont un effet significatif sur l’emploi total en Belgique pour la période 1995-2003, mais cela n’exclut pas un impact différent en fonction des niveaux de qualification.

    Planning & Working Papers - Working Paper 01-09  Publication(en),

2008

  • Wages and employment by level of education and occupation in Belgium 17/12/2008

    Certains économistes soulignent que certaines tâches effectuées par des travailleurs très qualifiés peuvent être sous-traitées assez facilement à l’étranger. Il s’agit de tâches qui font largement appel aux technologies de l’information et de la communication (TIC), tout en nécessitant peu de contacts personnels. De ce fait, des informaticiens, des experts-comptables, des radiologues et d’autres professions avec un niveau de formation relativement élevé subiraient plus la concurrence des pays à bas salaires que, par exemple, le personnel “horeca”, le personnel d’entretien, les agents de sécurité et d’autres professions prestataires de services personnels, ne nécessitant pas de diplôme de haut niveau. Dans cette perspective, le lien entre le niveau de formation et l’évolution des salaires et de l’emploi devient plus complexe. Le Bureau fédéral du Plan a réalisé une étude afin de déterminer dans quelle mesure le niveau de formation et la catégorie professionnelle des travailleurs peuvent expliquer l’évolution des salaires et les chances de trouver un emploi.

    Planning & Working Papers - Working Paper 22-08  Publication(en),

  • Trade-based measures of offshoring: an overview for Belgium 15/04/2008

    Dans le contexte d’une globalisation économique croissante, les délocalisations font l’objet d’un vif débat qui porte aussi bien sur leurs causes et leur ampleur que sur leurs conséquences pour des pays développés comme la Belgique. La présente étude du Bureau fédéral du Plan entend apporter deux contributions à ce débat : une actualisation de la définition du concept de délocalisation (‘offshoring’ en anglais) ainsi qu’une présentation d’indicateurs pour mesurer indirectement les délocalisations à l’aide de statistiques du commerce extérieur pour la Belgique.

    Planning & Working Papers - Working Paper 09-08  Publication(en),

2007

  • Potential ICT-enabled Offshoring of Service Jobs in Belgium 18/05/2007

    The present paper follows up on the longstanding tradition of analysing trends in relocation or offshoring at the Federal Planning Bureau. Replicating and extending a method developed by the OECD, it provides a rough estimate for Belgium of the proportion of service jobs at risk of being offshored in the wake of information and communication technology (ICT) developments, and compares the results for Belgium with results for the EU15 and the US. Occupational employment data from the Labour Force Survey are used to produce this estimate by identifying service jobs that could possibly be offshored due to ICT-enabled tradability.

    Articles - Article 2007051801  

  • Potential ICT-enabled Offshoring of Service Jobs in Belgium 10/04/2007

    This paper provides a rough estimate for Belgium of the proportion of service jobs at risk of being offshored in the wake of ICT-developments, and compares the results for Belgium with results for the EU15 and the US. Occupational employment data from the Labour Force Survey are used to produce this estimate by identifying service jobs that could possibly be offshored due to ICT-enabled tradability. The results show that the share of such jobs is lower for Belgium than for the EU15 or the US, but that there is an upward trend in this share over the period 1993 to 2005. Industry-level data and a shift-and-share analysis are used to explain the results.

    Planning & Working Papers - Working paper 06-07  Publication(en),

2005

2004

  • STU 04-04 : Special Topic - Geographic market specialisation and export performance 17/12/2004

    The latest update of the FPB’s medium-term outlook for Belgium shows average GDP growth reaching 2.3% during the 2004-2009 period. This development can be largely accounted for by domestic demand, whereas the role of (net) exports is expected to be more limited. As in 2003, private consumption should evolve in quite a dynamic way during the projection period (1.9% on average), mainly as a result of an expansion of households’ disposable income. At the same time, gross fixed capital formation (and particularly business investment) should recover, with annual growth reaching 3%. The structural loss of export market share should be confirmed with exports increasing by 5.3% a year on average, compared with growth of 6.3% of our potential export markets.

    Inflation should remain slightly below 2% in the medium term, mainly thanks to limited wage increases and moderate rises in imported costs. Employment is expected to increase by about 32,000 jobs a year during the 2005-2009 period. This performance can be explained by several factors: a relatively favourable macroeconomic context, limited wage increases, a reduction in working time and various measures taken to promote employment. At the same time, the working population should rise considerably. As a consequence, despite the creation of many jobs, the fall in the unemployment rate should be very limited.

    The FPB’s October update of the medium term outlook for Belgium does not yet take into account the measures decided within the framework of the 2005 budget.

    Short Term Update - Short Term Update 04-04  Publication(en),

  • STU 02-04 : Special Topic - What is the future for the industrial sector in Belgium? 26/05/2004

    The medium-term outlook for Belgium is pointing towards a GDP growth rate of 2.2% during the 2004-2009 period, which is slightly higher than potential (2.0%). This favourable development is due to both net exports and domestic demand. Private consumption should become more dynamic during the 2005-2009 period, particularly thanks to the increase in households’ disposable income (especially due to tax reforms and increases in employment and social benefits). Investment growth should attain 2.9% during the 2004-2009 period, mainly reflecting the increase in business investment. After ini-tially accelerating in 2004, average export growth should be 5.4% and the contribution of net exports to GDP growth should be 0.2%. Thanks to limited increases in wages and import costs and a negative output gap during the first few years of the projection, the inflation rate will remain below 2% in the medium term.

    The development of employment should reflect the favourable macroeconomic context, the limited in-creases in wage costs and various policy measures. After net losses in 2002 and 2003 and the creation of almost 9,000 jobs in 2004, about 30,000 jobs should be created every year during the 2005-2009 period. Industrial employment should fall by 44,000 persons during the 2004-2009 period and the number of jobs created in market services should exceed 200,000. Nevertheless, given the increase in the labour force (mainly in the 50-64 age class) the number of unemployed will barely decrease at all. The unemployment rate (broad administrative statistics) is still increasing in 2004 (from 14.1% to 14.4%), but will subsequently fall to 13.5% in 2009.

    The public accounts are expected to show a clear deterioration, with a net public sector borrowing re-quirement appearing in 2004 and widening to 1.4% in 2006 before gradually declining to 0.7% by the end of the projection period.

    Short Term Update - Short Term Update 02-04  Publication(en),

  • L’industrie a-t-elle un avenir en Belgique ? 20/04/2004

    Avec le ralentissement de la croissance depuis 2001 et l’augmentation du chômage qui a suivi, la question de l’avenir de l’industrie en Belgique est posée une nouvelle fois. A chaque récession, cette question est posée avec acuité parce que des entreprises industrielles, souvent de taille importante, disparaissent et qu’avec elles, disparaissent aussi un certain nombre d’emplois, un know how et une capacité de production. Des demandes de soutien de l’industrie sont adressées au Gouvernement.

    Planning & Working Papers - Working Paper 10-04  Publication(fr),

2003

2002

  • The New Economic Geography : a survey of the literature 30/12/2002

    This overview of the literature dedicated to the new economic geography intends to highlight the main mechanisms, which contribute to explain the spatial concentration of economic activity, in particular the formation of cities and industrial districts. This should provide some guidelines for an empirical analysis of the determinants of the spatial distribution of economic activity in urban areas in Belgium and for suggestions of economic policy instruments capable of influencing location choices.

    Planning & Working Papers - Working Paper 16-02  Publication(en),

2001

  • STU 03-01 : Special Topic - Some implications for Belgium of the Eastern EU enlargement 08/08/2001

    After a period of rapid expansion during 1999 and the first half of 2000, a clear worldwide slowdown was recorded in the second half of 2000. Current forecasts are assuming that world trade will recover in the second half of 2001. In line with this international scenario (lower growth, higher inflation), economic growth in Belgium has been revised downwards to 2.4% (compared to 2.8% in the economic budget last February). GDP growth next year should reach 2.8%, driven by stronger growth in exports and domestic demand.

    In addition to the impact of the recovery of international trade, activity in 2002 should be fuelled by various internal factors boosting private consumption, such as wage and employment increases, the indexation of wages and social benefits above consumer price growth and personal income tax reform.

    Domestic employment should rise by around 40,000 persons in 2001 and 45,000 in 2002, leading to a new improvement in the employment rate. Nevertheless, the impact on unemployment will be smaller, given the forecast increase in the labour force.

    Inflation should be significantly lower in 2002 than in 2001 (1.5% as against 2.4% for consumer prices), thanks to a small decrease in energy prices, the stabilization of the euro exchange rate and lower prices for food products. The impact on inflation of the conversion of prices into euro is uncertain and any changes, should mainly be seen in 2001.

    Short Term Update - Short Term Update 03-01  Publication(en),

  • STU 01-01 : Special Topic - Boost for Belgian foreign direct investment (FDI) due to mergers and acquisitions 08/03/2001

    Belgian exports will be hit this year by the deceleration in world economic growth, which was already reflected by the net slowdown in world import demand at the end of last year. Even when taking into account the expected recovery in world trade from the second half of 2001 onwards, growth in Belgian export markets should significantly ease back. Moreover, the appreciation of the euro will reduce the price competitiveness of Belgian exports and would lead to loss of market share. As a result, the positive contribution towards real economic growth from external trade will decline.

    Nevertheless, domestic demand should remain robust in 2001. Business investment should benefit from a rise in firms’ profitability due to the gain from the terms of trade (because of lower oil prices and the appreciation of the BEF). Private consumption will be sustained by substantial growth in household’s real disposable income as the expected deceleration in inflation will allow to regain part of the loss of purchasing power in 2000. Furthermore, households’ disposable income will also be supported by some personal tax cuts. Although the deterioration in the business cycle will lower the pace of employment growth, the higher labour-intensiveness, that has been observed during the last three years, will still give rise to a favorable employment outcome.

    All in all, Belgian GDP is expected to decelerate from 3.9% in 2000 to 2.8% this year and to be less export-led than last year.

    Taking into account the 2001 Budget and the macro-economic outlook presented above, and including the expected revenues from the UMTS licences (0.2% of GDP), the general government budget balance is expected to move from equilibrium in 2000 to a small surplus in 2001 (about 0.7% of GDP).

    Short Term Update - Short Term Update 01-01  Publication(en),

2000

1999

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