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JEL classification

 JEL GuideMathematical and Quantitative MethodsMathematical Methods and ProgrammingInput-Output Models [C67]


  • Exportations, hétérogénéité des entreprises et emploi en Belgique : une analyse entrées-sorties
    Uitvoer, heterogeniteit van de ondernemingen en werkgelegenheid in België: een input-outputanalyse [27/12/2019]

    This paper presents an estimation of employment sustained directly and indirectly by exports based on an export-heterogeneous input-output table. In this table, manufacturing industries are disaggregated according to the exporter status of firms in order to account for within-industry differences in input structures. According to our results, export-sustained employment in Belgium amounted to 1.32 million jobs in 2010, which corresponds to 29.5 % of total employment.

    WP 11-19
  • Updating the 2010 Belgian interregional supply and use table - Towards a version compatible with ESA 2010 [25/10/2019]

    This paper describes the methodology to make the existing interregional supply and use table (ISUT) of 2010 compatible to ESA2010/SNA2008 rules and shows the results at a macro level. The ISUT describes, for each product and industry, all intra- and interregional flows caused by the intermediate use, final consumption expenditures, investments and exports of the three Belgian regions Brussels, Flanders and Wallonia. 

    WP 10-19
  • Analysis of the air pollution associated with household consumption in Belgium in 2014: the case of greenhouse gas emissions [05/09/2019]

    This Working Paper examines which socioeconomic household characteristics determine greenhouse gas emissions in Belgium. The analysis is based on the PEACH2AIR database, which links the air pollution data with consumption expenditure of Belgian households as recorded in the 2014 Household Budget Survey.

    WP 08-19
  • Input-Output Tables 2015 [21/12/2018]

    In accordance with the Law of 21 December 1994, the Federal Planning Bureau (FPB) is responsible for drawing up the five-yearly input-output tables within the framework of the National Accounts Institute. In this publication, the Input-Output Tables for the year 2015 at current prices are presented. These tables have been compiled according to the ESA 2010 methodology and the NACE Rev. 2/ CPA 2.1 classification.

  • Value chain integration of export-oriented and domestic market manufacturing firms - An analysis based on a heterogeneous input-output table for Belgium [26/09/2018]

    For a finer analysis of competitiveness and value chain integration, this working paper presents a micro-data based breakdown of manufacturing industries in the 2010 Belgian supply-and-use and input-output tables into export-oriented and domestic market firms. The former are defined as those firms that export at least 25% of their turnover. Analyses based on the resulting export-heterogeneous IOT reveal differences between the two in terms of input structures and import behaviour: export-oriented manufacturers have lower value-added in output shares, and they import proportionally more of the intermediates they use. Moreover, exports of export-oriented manufacturers generate a substantial amount of value added in other Belgian firms, in particular providers of services. The policy implication of these results is that Belgium’s external competitiveness depends not only on exporters but also on firms that mainly serve the domestic market. To maximise the impact of export promotion in terms of domestically generated value added, the entire value chain for the production of exports must be taken into account.

    Working Paper 11-18
  • The PEACH2AIR database of air pollution associated with household consumption in Belgium in 2014 - Methodological description for the SUSPENS research project funded by the Federal Science Policy Office [14/03/2018]

    The database PEACH2AIR links emissions of greenhouse and acidifying gases, of gases contributing to tropospheric ozone formation and particulate matter to consumer expenditures in Belgium in 2014. It relies on standardized air pollution data (including air emissions accounts), input-output tables and the Household Budget Survey. Analyses for 2014 show that energy products as well as food and non-alcoholic beverages are the most air polluting expenditure categories.

    Working Paper 03-18
  • Belgium’s Carbon Footprint - Calculations based on a national accounts consistent global multi-regional input-output table [28/09/2017]

    The traditional attribution of responsibility for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to producing countries may be distorted by international trade flows as importing emission-intensive commodities contributes to reducing a country’s production-based emissions. This has motivated the calculation of carbon footprints that measure the amount of domestic and foreign GHG emissions (directly and indirectly) embodied in commodities intended for final consumption by a country’s residents. In this
    working paper, we present carbon footprint estimations for Belgium based on global multi-regional input-output (MRIO) tables that have been made consistent with detailed Belgian national accounts. According to our calculations, Belgium’s carbon footprint is substantially higher than its productionbased emissions, which means that Belgium is a net importer of GHG emissions. Moreover, our results show that consistency with detailed national accounts does matter for MRIO-based carbon footprint calculations, in particular for a small open economy like Belgium.

    Working Paper 10-17
  • Analyse du tableau input-output interrégional pour l’année 2010
    Analyse van de interregionale input-outputtabel voor het jaar 2010 [29/04/2016]

    This working paper presents two analytical applications based on the interregional input-output (IO) table for Belgium for the year 2010. The Federal Planning Bureau constructed this table in 2015 in cooperation with the statistical authorities of the country’s three Regions (IBSA, SVR and IWEPS). The following standard IO analyses based on applying the Leontief model to the interregional IO table are presented here: the derivation of multipliers for each region and the estimation of regional value added and regional employment generated by domestic final demand and exports.

    Working Paper 05-16
  • Een economische analyse van de sector van alcoholische dranken in België
    Une analyse économique du secteur des boissons alcoolisées en Belgique [14/01/2016]

    This paper analyses the importance of the production of alcoholic beverages for the Belgian economy, with a particular focus on beer. First, the paper provides an outline of the recent development of production, imports, exports and domestic use of alcoholic beverages. This product analysis is complemented by a study of the branch of alcoholic beverages in which production, added value, investments and employment are discussed. Finally, production, revenue and employment multipliers are calculated using the input-output tables for the year 2010, as well as the total contribution of the whole production and distribution chain of the produced and imported alcoholic beverages to Belgian GDP and employment.

    Working Paper 02-16
  • Tableaux Entrées-Sorties 2010 - SEC 2010
    Input-outputtabellen 2010 - ESR 2010 [22/12/2015]

    Input-Output Table 2010 (2015)
  • Tableaux Entrées-Sorties 2010
    Input-outputtabellen 2010 [20/12/2013]

    Input-Output Table 2010
  • Analyse entrées-sorties - Modèles, Multiplicateurs, Linkages
    Input-outputanalyse - Modellen, Multiplicatoren, Linkages [15/10/2012]

    Since 1994, the Federal Planning Bureau is responsible for drawing up the five-year input-output tables for Belgium. These tables are a unique tool for analysing the interdependences between the branches of the Belgian economy. When integrated in an input-output model, they provide rapidly different synthetic measures of the interdependences. The WP presents two classic applications of the IO models : multipliers and linkage measures.

    Working Paper 12-12
  • Supply and Use Tables and Input-Output Tables 1995-2007 for Belgium - Methodology of Compilation [24/05/2012]

    Users of Supply and Use Tables (SUT) and Input-Output Tables (IOT) compiled in different national accounts (NA) vintages face a problem of consistency of their data due to revisions in the NA. This paper describes the methodology that has been followed to compile a consistent time series of Belgian SUT and IOT for the period 1995-2007, in line with the NA published in November 2010.

    Working Paper 06-12
  • Homogenising detailed employment data [05/04/2011]

    In the national accounts labour inputs are collected by industry. Homogenising means transforming labour inputs by industry into labour inputs by product. This homogenisation is done using mathematical techniques. The paper compares the results for two wellknown techniques (product technology and industry technology) and discusses the effects of homogenisation on Belgian data for the years 2000 and 2005. Labour inputs are detailed by gender and education level. An additional distinction is made between employees and self-employed. The paper proposes a solution for the negatives problem that arises when applying the product technology model in the case of self-employed workers. It also assesses the plausibility of results by showing the effects of homogenising on wage costs and value added per head as well as on the ranking of industries by education level. The product and the industry technology model yield significantly different results, most particularly for the employment use of wholesale and retail trade. The results of the product technology model are judged to be most plausible.

    Working Paper 06-11
  • Analyse du secteur Horeca en Belgique
    Analyse van de horecasector in België [01/02/2011]

    This Working Paper gives an overall picture of the horeca industry in Belgium. The study focuses in particular on aspects of business demography, the importance of the sector for the Belgian economy, its development since the mid‐nineties and the financial health of horeca companies. Since the provision of horeca services is a very labour‐intensive activity, special  attention is paid to employment features.

    Working Paper 01-11
  • Een economische analyse van de productie en distributie van alcoholische dranken in België [23/12/2010]

    This paper shows the evolution of production, domestic demand and imports and exports of alcoholic beverages between 1995 and 2009. These variables are given for beer, malt and distilled and non‐distilled alcoholic beverages as well as some non‐alcoholic beverages. The paper shows the evolution of production, value added, investment, employment and wage costs for the alcoholic beverage producing industry and breaks down employment in breweries by type. For the years 1995 and 2005, the study estimates and compares the GDP contribution and employment generation of the production and distribution of alcoholic beverages in Belgium. These estimates are based on the input‐output tables for both years.

    Working Paper 21-10
  • Tableaux Entrées-Sorties de la Belgique pour 2005
    Input-outputtabellen van België voor 2005 [20/05/2010]

    Input-Output Table 2005
  • Qualitative Employment Multipliers for Belgium, Results for 2000 and 2002 [03/12/2007]

    The paper describes how an input-output table can be linked to detailed employment data in order to provide qualitative employment multipliers. Qualitative employment multipliers specify the direct and indirect labour use by final demand products of worker types differentiated by gender, age class, professional status, educational attainment level, labour regime or a combination of these characteristics.

    Working Paper 15-07
  • Een vergelijkende analyse van de Input-Outputtabellen van 1995 en 2000 [06/04/2005]

    Working Paper 04-05
  • Tableaux Entrées-Sorties de la Belgique pour 2000
    Input-output-tabellen van België voor 2000 [28/01/2005]

    Input-Output Table 2000
  • Analyse du secteur Horeca
    Analyse van de horecasector [23/12/2004]

    Working Paper 21-04
  • Une analyse économique de la production et de la distribution de boissons alcoolisées
    Een economische analyse van de productie en distributie van alcoholische dranken [10/11/2003]

    Working Paper 20-03
  • Een poging tot vergelijking van de Input-Output-tabellen van 1990 en 1995 [31/10/2003]

    Working Paper 19-03
  • Quelques applications à l’aide du Tableau Entrées-Sorties 1995 [30/10/2003]

    Working Paper 18-03
  • The Use Tables for Imported Goods and for Trade Margins - An Integrated Approach to the Compilation of the Belgian 1995 Tables [03/03/2003]

    This paper describes the compilation of the use tables for imports of goods and for trade margins for Belgium in 1995. It introduces a methodological novelty by integrating the compilation of both tables and systematically exploiting the fact that large parts of intermediary consumption and investment (i.e. those directly imported by the using firms) as well as exports (the direct exports by producers) bear no trade margins.

    In order to do this we used intrastat and extrastat data on imports and exports of goods in 1995. The results of this approach differ significantly from those of a proportional distribution of imports and margins. Many statistical offices resort to this proportional distribution because of a lack of survey data on the destination of trade margins and imports. In Belgium the proportional approach is less appropriate because the product detail is too limited and the national account data are firm-based without distinguishing local kind of activities.

    Working Paper 04-03
  • Tableaux Entrées-Sorties de la Belgique pour 1995
    Input-output-tabellen van België voor 1995 [28/02/2003]

    Input-Output Table 1995
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