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To promote transparency and provide information, the Federal Planning Bureau regularly publishes the methods and results of its works. The publications are organised in different series, such as Outlooks, Working Papers and Planning Papers. Some reports can be consulted here, along with the Short Term Update newsletters that were published until 2015. You can search our publications by theme, publication type, author and year.

Documents (1089)


  • Economy-Wide Material Flow Accounts 2008-2022 30/04/2024

    In compliance with European Regulation No 691/2011 this publication by the National Accounts Institute presents the Economy-Wide Material Flow Accounts (EW-MFA) for the period 2008-2022.

    Reports - REP_EWMFA2024_12991  Publication(fr), Publicatie(nl),

  • Environmental taxes by economic activity 2008-2022 30/04/2024

    In compliance with European Regulation No 691/2011 this publication by the National Accounts Institute presents the Environmental Taxes by Economic Activity (ETEA) for the period 2008-2022.

    Reports - REP_ETEA2024_12990  Publication(fr), Publicatie(nl),

  • The Gender Pension Gap as an indicator of gender inequality in old age in the EU 25/04/2024

    The Gender Pension Gap (GPG) and the Gender Pension Coverage Gap (GPCG) are indicators of inequality between genders concerning pensions. This report discusses the extent and evolution of the GPG and GPCG in the EU countries. Also, these measures are evaluated as to their quality as indicators of gender inequality in old age, and proposals for possible improvements are made. 

    Reports - REP_13000  Publication(en),

  • Administrative burden in Belgium in 2022 27/02/2024

    This publication presents the quantitative and qualitative results of the survey on administrative burden for enterprises and self-employed persons in Belgium in 2022.

    Working Papers - Working Paper 09-24  Publication(fr), Publicatie(nl),

  • Sustainable development indicators 2024 20/02/2024

    This report presents 78 indicators and an assessment of their progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) adopted by the UN in 2015. It provides a detailed overview of Belgium's international position and, for the first time, a breakdown by region and for different population categories such as age, gender or income. Finally, it analyses the evolution of the well-being of Belgians and its sustainability for future generations.

    Reports - OPREP202401  Publication(fr), Publicatie(nl),

  • Estimating the budgetary impulse of a top wealth tax before macroeconomic effects 06/02/2024

    In the context of the election programme costing exercise, the Federal Planning Bureau is anticipating proposals from political parties for the introduction of a top wealth tax. The purpose of this document is to explain the estimation method for its budgetary impulse. To do so, we use data from the Belgian National Bank's Household Financial Behaviour Survey. We develop the calculation method for estimating revenues with or without the potential behavioural responses of taxpayers. To include potential behavioural responses, we investigate two approaches, namely the bunching method and the inclusion of net wealth elasticities estimated abroad. Based on the results, we will preserve only the second method for the DC2024 costing. Furthermore, this paper reviews the literature on the macroeconomic effects of the top wealth tax - literature relevant to understand the inclusion of the tax in the HERMES and QUEST models.

    Working Papers - DC2024_WP_08  Publication(fr), Publicatie(nl),

  • Description and use of the PLANET and CASMO models 06/02/2024

    This paper gives a non-technical description of the PLANET and CASMO models. The main results of the models are presented using the reference scenario for the costing exercise. Several policy scenarios and their results are also presented, for illustration purposes. 

    Working Papers - DC2024_WP_07  Publication(fr), Publicatie(nl),

  • Description and use of the QUEST III R&D model 06/02/2024

    As part of the 2024 costing of electoral platforms, the QUEST III R&D dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model will be used to simulate the long-term effects of structural and (para-)fiscal measures proposed by the political parties. This paper summarises the characteristics of the model, presents its structure and the main transmission mechanisms and constraints. The functioning of the model is then illustrated through five stylised structural and (para-)fiscal reforms.

    Working Papers - DC2024_WP_05  Publication(fr), Publicatie(nl),

  • Description et utilisation du modèle HERMES
    Beschrijving en gebruik van het HERMES-model 06/02/2024

    The Federal Planning Bureau's econometric model HERMES will be used to calculate the macroeconomic and budgetary impact of each political party's set of priority measures over the next legislature. This working paper summarises the characteristics of the model and describes its structure and main transmission mechanisms. It then illustrates the functioning of the model using several economic policy variants. Finally, this working paper describes the procedure for constructing the reference scenario and presents the main results of the June 2023 economic outlook. Those forecasts constitute the prefiguration of the reference scenario which will be published in February 2024, covering the period 2024-2029. 

    Working Papers - DC2024_WP_04  Publication(fr), Publicatie(nl),

  • Description and use of the model EXPEDITION 06/02/2024

    In the framework of the election costing exercise the impact on the distribution of disposable income is measured for a number of measures proposed by political parties. Administrative micro-data are used for this exercise. This approach allows that the impact of the measures studied is reported at the level of individual or household characteristics. The policy measures whose impact on the distribution of disposable income is calculated are measures situated within the domain of social security and social assistance, supplemented by the regulations on family allowances, the contribution rules applied to these benefits and the rules on personal income tax. The tool used for these calculations is the microsimulation model EXPEDITION. The present paper describes the main features of the EXPEDITION model and illustrates its operation on the basis of two simulations.

    Working Papers - DC2024_WP_03  Publication(fr), Publicatie(nl),

  • Description and use of the PROMES model 06/02/2024

    As part of the election budgetary costings and impact assessment, the PROMES projection model is used to calculate the fiscal impulse of policy measures within the public health domain. This Working Paper outlines the characteristics, structure and operation of the model. We illustrate the simulation possibilities of the model using the base case and some alternative scenarios.

    Working Papers - DC2024_WP_01  Publication(fr), Publicatie(nl),

  • Minimum regulations, pension credits and the gender pension gap 30/01/2024

    This report shows that minimum regulations (minimum pensions and the minimumright per career year) and pension credits diminish pension inequality between men and women. If we assume that there are no minimum regulations, the pension gap would be 37% instead of 31%. If we assume that pension credits are not granted, the gap would be 43% instead of 31%. The pension credit part-time work with maintenance of pension rights, one specific type of pension credit, has a limited impact. Without this pension credit, the pension gap would increase with 0.4 percentage points.

    Reports - REP_12936  Publicatie(nl),


  • Columns G and H of the supplementary table on pension schemes in social insurance (Table 29) 22/12/2023

    The supplementary table 29 of the Eurostat transmission program covers the statutory and occupational pension schemes in social insurance in Belgium. The FPB is charged with the compilation of columns G and H, which include accrued-to-date pension entitlements/liabilities in the statutory pension schemes, representing the present discounted value of accrued-to-date future old-age and survivor pensions of current beneficiaries and future beneficiaries who accumulated pension rights up to the valuation date.

    Reports - REP_T29_12928  Publication(en),

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