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JEL classification

 JEL GuidePublic EconomicsFiscal Policies and Behavior of Economic AgentsFirm [H32]


  • New evaluation of public support to research and development in Belgium [22/11/2022]

    A new evaluation of public support to R&D in Belgium shows that regional subsidies and the federal partial exemption from payment of the withholding tax for researchers may have helped to increase R&D expenditure in Belgium. The results are less positive for some benefits granted by the federal government through corporate income taxation. As these tax benefits account for the lion's share of the rapidly increasing budgetary costs of public support for R&D, the efficiency of public support could be increased.

    Article 014
  • Public Support to Business Research and Development in Belgium - Fourth evaluation [22/11/2022]

    Whereas regional subsidies and some tax incentives appear to encourage firms to increase their investment in R&D activities, some incentives provided through corporate income taxation seem to have no additionality effect or even result in the crowding out of firms’ own R&D expenditures. As these incentives claim the lion’s share of the rapidly rising budgetary cost of public support to business R&D, the efficiency of tax incentives for R&D activities could be increased by introducing a cap on the total amount of public support that companies can receive, as also suggested by an international study.

  • Analysis of the effect of the "first recruitments" measure on the survival of young businesses employing salaried staff [05/03/2021]

    The "first recruitments"measure aims to promote employment while supporting small businesses and start-ups. The analysis shows that the measure has a positive but modest impact on the probability of survival of young businesses. Furthermore, the reinforcement in 2016 does not appear to have generated any additional benefit. On the one hand, these results imply that the strengthening of the measure does not address a genuine need on the part of the recipients. On the other hand, the reinforcement may have encouraged more employers to undertake a risky business activity.

    Working Paper 02-21
  • L’industrie pharmaceutique en Belgique - Analyse de compétitivité [30/04/2019]

    This Working Paper analyses the competitive position of the pharmaceutical industry over the 2000-2017 period. The evolution of price/cost competitiveness and non-cost competitiveness is studied based on a comparison with our neighbouring countries France, the Netherlands and Germany, and with Denmark, Ireland, Slovenia and Switzerland. The study also analyses a series of global factors and factors specific to the pharmaceutical industry that may influence competitiveness.

    Working Paper 05-19
  • Tax incentives for business R&D in Belgium - Third evaluation [29/04/2019]

    Belgium has committed to raise investment in research and development (R&D) to 3% of GDP by 2020. In fulfilment of this commitment, the federal government introduced different tax incentives in support of business R&D. This paper presents the results of the third evaluation of the efficiency of these tax incentives, covering the period 2003-2015.

    Working Paper 04-19
  • Young Firms and Industry Dynamics in Belgium [24/06/2016]

    Recent studies reveal the importance of entrants and young firms for job creation, productivity and economic growth. Some scholars argue that the falling rate at which new firms are established, can explain, to a certain extent, the productivity slowdown witnessed in most OECD countries. Belgium appears to stand out unfavourably from other countries in its very low start-up rate. This paper reviews the empirical cross-country evidence, provides some additional analysis of the role of young firms in industry-level employment and productivity dynamics in Belgium and concludes with a discussion of the implications for economic policy.

    Working Paper 06-16
  • Public support for R&D and the educational mix of R&D employees [30/10/2014]

    In this paper we assess the impact of public support for R&D activities on the educational mix of R&D employees in private companies in Belgium, covering the period 2001-2009. Data on federal tax incentives in support of R&D activities are matched with R&D survey data to investigate changes in the share of R&D employees with a specific degree: PhDs; higher education (second stage and first stage respectively); and other qualifications. Estimations show that public support significantly
    raises the share of researchers holding a PhD. There are indications that PhDs substitute for R&D employees with a lower degree. We also show that controlling for the changes in the educational mix of R&D personnel lowers the estimates of the impact of public support on the average wages of researchers.

    Working Paper 08-14
  • The impact of subsidies and fiscal incentives on corporate R&D expenditures in Belgium (2001-2009) [25/01/2013]

    This paper presents the results of an initial evaluation of federal fiscal incentives in support of Research and Development (R&D) by companies in Belgium. The impact of regional subsidies and the partial exemption from advance payment for R&D personnel is estimated for the period 2001-2009. The results show that the existing measures of public support have stimulated companies to carry out additional R&D activities.

    Working Paper 01-13
  • Impact des subventions et des incitations fiscales sur la recherche et le développement des entreprises en Belgique (2001-2009)
    De impact van subsidies en fiscale voordelen op onderzoek en ontwikkeling van ondernemingen in België (2001-2009) [18/06/2012]

    Working Paper 08-12
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