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JEL classification

 JEL GuideEconomic Development, Technological Change, and GrowthTechnological ChangeGovernment Policy [O38]


  • Public Support to Business Research and Development in Belgium - Fourth evaluation [22/11/2022]

    Whereas regional subsidies and some tax incentives appear to encourage firms to increase their investment in R&D activities, some incentives provided through corporate income taxation seem to have no additionality effect or even result in the crowding out of firms’ own R&D expenditures. As these incentives claim the lion’s share of the rapidly rising budgetary cost of public support to business R&D, the efficiency of tax incentives for R&D activities could be increased by introducing a cap on the total amount of public support that companies can receive, as also suggested by an international study.

  • New evaluation of public support to research and development in Belgium [22/11/2022]

    A new evaluation of public support to R&D in Belgium shows that regional subsidies and the federal partial exemption from payment of the withholding tax for researchers may have helped to increase R&D expenditure in Belgium. The results are less positive for some benefits granted by the federal government through corporate income taxation. As these tax benefits account for the lion's share of the rapidly increasing budgetary costs of public support for R&D, the efficiency of public support could be increased.

    Article 014
  • L’industrie pharmaceutique en Belgique - Analyse de compétitivité [30/04/2019]

    This Working Paper analyses the competitive position of the pharmaceutical industry over the 2000-2017 period. The evolution of price/cost competitiveness and non-cost competitiveness is studied based on a comparison with our neighbouring countries France, the Netherlands and Germany, and with Denmark, Ireland, Slovenia and Switzerland. The study also analyses a series of global factors and factors specific to the pharmaceutical industry that may influence competitiveness.

    Working Paper 05-19
  • Tax incentives for business R&D in Belgium - Third evaluation [29/04/2019]

    Belgium has committed to raise investment in research and development (R&D) to 3% of GDP by 2020. In fulfilment of this commitment, the federal government introduced different tax incentives in support of business R&D. This paper presents the results of the third evaluation of the efficiency of these tax incentives, covering the period 2003-2015.

    Working Paper 04-19
  • Public support for R&D and the educational mix of R&D employees [30/10/2014]

    In this paper we assess the impact of public support for R&D activities on the educational mix of R&D employees in private companies in Belgium, covering the period 2001-2009. Data on federal tax incentives in support of R&D activities are matched with R&D survey data to investigate changes in the share of R&D employees with a specific degree: PhDs; higher education (second stage and first stage respectively); and other qualifications. Estimations show that public support significantly
    raises the share of researchers holding a PhD. There are indications that PhDs substitute for R&D employees with a lower degree. We also show that controlling for the changes in the educational mix of R&D personnel lowers the estimates of the impact of public support on the average wages of researchers.

    Working Paper 08-14
  • The impact of subsidies and fiscal incentives on corporate R&D expenditures in Belgium (2001-2009) [25/01/2013]

    This paper presents the results of an initial evaluation of federal fiscal incentives in support of Research and Development (R&D) by companies in Belgium. The impact of regional subsidies and the partial exemption from advance payment for R&D personnel is estimated for the period 2001-2009. The results show that the existing measures of public support have stimulated companies to carry out additional R&D activities.

    Working Paper 01-13
  • Impact des subventions et des incitations fiscales sur la recherche et le développement des entreprises en Belgique (2001-2009)
    De impact van subsidies en fiscale voordelen op onderzoek en ontwikkeling van ondernemingen in België (2001-2009) [18/06/2012]

    Working Paper 08-12
  • Le système d’innovation en Wallonie [28/02/2012]

    This working paper analyses the performances of the Walloon innovation system in 2010. It concentrates on the six dimensions of the innovation system: knowledge development, human resources, R&D valorisation, innovation absorption capacity, entrepreneurial skills and financing capacity. These pillars are assessed by comparing the Walloon performances with those of European countries and regions with a similar industrial heritage. The analysis underlines the good performances of the mobilisation of financial resources in favour of R&D activities but also a potential problem in terms of human resources available for these activities. Maintaining a sufficient flow of competence by new science graduates and engineers and by the implementation of lifelong learning remains the key challenge in the years to come.

    Working Paper 04-12
  • Lissabon 10 jaar later: de evolutie van de uitgaven voor onderzoek en ontwikkeling in België vergeleken met andere EU-landen [29/10/2010]

    In this working paper the evolution of expenditures for research and development (R&D) in Belgium, in the period 1995-2007, is compared to the evolution in ten other EU countries. R&D expenditures by companies established in Belgium evolved quite favourably up to 2001 but subsequently not only did R&D intensity in Belgium decrease but the position relative to other countries deteriorated as well. This evolution seems to be due mainly to a decline in the share of a significant number of industries in Belgium in the overall R&D expenditures of the group of countries considered, and less the result of the type of industries in which Belgian companies have specialized.

    Working Paper 20-10
  • Le système d’innovation en Wallonie [22/02/2010]

    Working Paper 01-10
  • Le système d’innovation en Wallonie [10/02/2009]

    The Working Paper analyses the performances of the Walloon innovation system in 2008. This analysis concentrates on the six dimensions of the innovation system: knowledge development, human resources, R&D exploitation, innovation absorption capacity, entrepreneurial skills and financing capacity.  These foundations are evaluated by comparing the performances of the Walloon innovation system with the performances of innovation systems of other countries and regions in Europe. They were chosen for their socio-economic proximity to the Walloon region. The examination of the Walloon innovation system reveals a problem that is essentially connected with the capacity to turn research and innovation efforts into economic results that are sufficient for the Region.

    Working Paper 02-09
  • Le système d’innovation en Wallonie [10/03/2008]

    Working Paper 06-08
  • Le financement public de l’innovation : Etude comparative Finlande, Suède, Belgique / De overheidsfinanciering van innovatie: Vergelijkende studie van Finland, Zweden en België  [29/09/2006]

    This working paper analyses public financing in two countries that have already reached the Barcelona goal (R&D expenditure on GDP at least equal to 3%), Finland and Sweden, and compares it with the situation in Belgium. This comparison covers not only the quantitative aspects but also the organisational dimension of the public support for innovation.

    Working paper 09-06
  • Fiscale O&O-stimuli in België [20/07/2006]

    Working Paper 06-06
  • Innovation et R&D dans les régions belges dans une perspective européenne
    Innovatie en O&O in de Belgische gewesten in een Europees perspectief [28/06/2005]

    Working Paper 13-05
  • TIC, nouveaux standards transactionnels et fiscalité - Défis et perspectives [27/09/2003]

    Working Paper 15-03
  • Towards E-Gov in Belgium - Situation in August 2002 [01/11/2002]

    This brief overview will consider e-gov achievements and plans at each policy level, together with the specific organizational and management systems that are being constructed for the purpose of implementing them. E-gov can be considered as a very large object to study. The aim of this paper is not to be exhaustive but to give an overview of the most significant initiatives in the area.

    In Belgium e-gov is not an end in itself but is considered as a tool of the so-called “Copernicus Plan” ( to modernize the public service in order to achieve better service delivery to citizens, better functioning of the civil services and a simplification of administrative burdens.

    Working Paper 10-02
  • E-GOV - Naar een elektronische overheid in België [15/07/2001]

    Working Paper 04-01
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