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JEL classification

 JEL GuideUrban, Rural, and Regional EconomicsTransportation SystemsTransportation: Demand, Supply, and Congestion [R41]


  • Perspectives de la demande de transport en Belgique à l’horizon 2040
    Vooruitzichten van de transportvraag in België tegen 2040 [31/01/2019]

    Within the framework of a cooperation agreement between the Federal Planning Bureau and the Federal Public Service Mobility and Transport, the Federal Planning Bureau produces, every three years, long-term projections of transport demand in Belgium. This exercise is the fourth of its kind so far. It aims to make a projection of no change in policy, indicating general long-term trends and allowing elements on which transport policy should be based to be identified and the impact of transport policy measures to be studied.

  • Tax Expenditure and the Cost of Labour Taxation - An application to company car taxation [28/06/2017]

    The goal of this paper is to estimate the efficiency cost of one additional euro of revenue through the personal income tax system, considering its simultaneous effects on the labour market and the transport market. More precisely, we seek to derive estimates of the Marginal Excess Burden of marginal personal income tax rates in Belgium considering the subsidization of company cars. We find that taking into account of welfare losses in the transport market adds 5-7 cents to the welfare cost of an additional euro of tax revenue, compared to models that consider only the effects on the labour market. The cost of raising the top marginal tax rate rises by 28% to 58% depending on the model assumptions. As an aside, we estimate tax expenditure on the transport sector via the personal income tax system to be 1.9 billion euro. We conclude that there is scope for welfare improving by base broadening and rate cutting. The framework is applied to analyse the merits of cash-for-car proposals.

    Working Paper 07-17
  • Commuting subsidies in Belgium - Implementation in the PLANET model [28/10/2016]

    This paper seeks to quantify the size and traffic effects of commuting subsidies in Belgium. To this end we implement the most recently available data on both the personal income tax treatment of commuting reimbursement and subsidies to rail commuters in the PLANET model. We find that subsidy rates by tend to differ strongly by mode and by type of reimbursement. Commuting by own car is generally subsidized at low levels, if it enjoys any subsidy at all. Commuting by company car, bike and public transport enjoy relatively high levels of subsidization. Policy simulations show the importance of commuting subsidies in steering the modal split. Both the exemptions for commuting reimbursements as well as subsidies for rail commuters moderately steer traffic away from private transport, while also lengthening the average commute.

    Working Paper 11-16
  • The fiscal treatment of company cars in Belgium: effects on car demand, travel behaviour and external costs [24/02/2016]

    This paper seeks to understand how the current tax subsidy for the ownership and use of employer-provided cars influence behaviour by its recipients. We first seek to clarify how it affects the choice about cars, i.e. the number of cars a household owns, their engine size and their value. Second, we study the impact of the subsidy on the propensity to use a car for commuting and the number of kilometres driven for commuting and for other, private purposes. The analysis has been made on the basis of the BELDAM survey, a rich dataset on mobility behaviour in Belgium.

    Working Paper 03-16
  • Perspectives de l’évolution de la demande de transport en Belgique à l’horizon 2030
    Vooruitzichten van de transportvraag in België tegen 2030 [08/12/2015]

    Within the framework of a cooperation agreement between the Federal Planning Bureau and the Federal Public Service Mobility and Transport, the Federal Planning Bureau produces every three years long-term projections of transport demand in Belgium. This exercise, the third of its kind so far, is aimed at making a projection with no change in policy, indicating general long-term trends and allowing to identify elements on which transport policy should be based and to study the impact of transport policy measures.

  • Modal choice for travel to work and school - Recent trends and regional differences in Belgium [15/10/2014]

    Recent transport research suggests that car use is reaching its saturation level in many advanced economies. Particularly in metropolitan areas, car use is declining in favour of slow and public transport modes. Also young adults are found to have shifted travel preferences away from private cars. Looking at changes in transport modes for travel to work and school, we find similar trends in Belgium. The results are based on recent mobility data from the Belgian Labour Force Survey (LFS) and the Socio-Economic Survey of 2001.

    Working Paper 07-14
  • Dépenses des ménages et transport - Analyse thématique [26/02/2014]

    This working paper describes main evolutions in household expenditure for transport in Belgium. Results are based on data from national accounts (National Accounts Institute, Eurostat) as well as data from Household budget surveys (Statistics Belgium).

    Working Paper 02-14
  • Impact sur l’environnement de l’évolution de la demande de transport à l’horizon 2030
    De milieu-impact van de evolutie van de transportvraag tegen 2030 [18/09/2012]

    Working Paper 11-12
  • Perspectives de l’évolution de la demande de transport en Belgique à l’horizon 2030
    Vooruitzichten van de transportvraag in België tegen 2030 [17/09/2012]

  • A computable general equilibrium for Belgium with a special focus on transport policies [25/08/2011]

    This paper seeks to extend the PLANET model to allow for an endogenous influence of transport sector outcomes on the economy. To this end, we embed the PLANET data on freight and household transport for 2003 into a static CGE model of the Belgian economy. Households use transport for commuting and leisure transport, while production sectors use freight as an input. We allow for important feedback effects on generalized transport costs through congestion. To illustrate the model, we contrast the effects of a kilometre charge on freight only and a charge that targets household transport as well.

    Working Paper 12-11
  • Comptes satellites des transports en 2005
    Satellietrekeningen Transport in 2005 [11/05/2011]

    Planning Paper 109
  • Analyse de politiques de transport : rapprochement des accises sur les carburants et Eurovignette III [27/01/2011]

    This study aims to analyse the impact of two transport pricing policies using the PLANET model. The transport policies are (1) a harmonisation of excise duties on petrol and diesel and (2) road pricing for heavy goods vehicles in accordance with the EU proposal for the Eurovignette III directive. The effects studied concern the consequences for the transport activity for persons and goods, the environmental impact and the impact on social welfare. For both policy types, the impact on the public budget is neutralized through general taxation or labour taxation.

    Working Paper 02-11
  • The PLANET model - Methodological Report: Modelling of Short Sea Shipping and Bus-Tram-Metro [24/06/2010]

    This Working Paper describes the methodological changes in the Modal and Time Choice module of the PLANET model, further to the endogenisation of short see shipping for international transport and the splitting of the Bus-Tram-Metro aggregate into three distinct transport modes.

    Working Paper 16-10
  • The PLANET model - Methodological Report: The Car Stock Module [25/02/2010]

    The vehicle stock module calculates the size and composition of the car stock. Its output is a full description of the car stock in every year, by vehicle type, age and (emission) technology of the vehicle. The vehicle stock is represented in the detail needed to compute transport emissions. The integration of the car stock module in PLANET will allow to better capture the impact of changes in fixed and variable taxes levied on cars. Among these impacts, the effect on the environment is of particular interest.

    Working Paper 02-10
  • Les comptes satellites des transports et les externalités [20/12/2009]

    The transport satellite accounts (TSA) show the total transport expenditure in Belgium in 2000. The TSA are a complement to the information in the national accounts for transport activities, which are only partially described in this general framework. Transport generates externalities that are not taken into account in the total expenditure as defined in the satellite accounts. The study assesses the external costs of various transport modes and contains a joint analysis of the externalities and of the main TSA results for 2000. The analysis reveals the extent of the transport costs and externalities, especially of road transport. The estimated external costs concern air pollution, climate change, accidents, noise and congestion.

    Working Paper 15-09
  • Analyse de l’impact de différents schémas théoriques d’une taxe routière en Belgique [18/12/2009]

    New measures need to be taken in order to reduce the negative impact of transport. This study presents various theoretical schemes for the introduction of road pricing in Belgium and analyses their impact on transport, the environment and welfare by using the PLANET model. The internalisation of external costs, while difficult to implement in the short term, improves welfare significantly. In order to improve welfare, a road tax system aimed at lorries exclusively should allow for a suitable differentiation according to the actual periods of transport. Extending the road pricing system so as to include vans has a positive effect on welfare and also avoids shifting part of the road freight to vans. Extending road pricing to all road motor vehicles (lorries, vans and individual cars) significantly improves welfare, road congestion and the average speed on the road network. On the other hand, it induces a very marked surge in the demand for rail and other public transport (buses, trams and metros), which would almost certainly exceed the capacity of existing infrastructures. Potential management problems of rail and other public transport such as buses, trams and metros could be avoided if the generalisation of the road pricing system to all road motor vehicles were combined with the withdrawal of subsidies for public transport.

    Working Paper 14-09
  • Vervoeremissies - Historische evolutie en vooruitzichten [15/07/2009]

    Working Paper 08-09
  • Perspectives à long terme de l’évolution des transports en Belgique : projection de référence
    Langetermijnvooruitzichten voor transport in België : referentiescenario [25/02/2009]

    Planning Paper 107
  • Analyse des dépenses et recettes publiques de transport [26/11/2008]

    This study presents some of the results of the transport satellite accounts (TSA) published recently (Planning Paper 106) in order to provide a first estimation of expenditure and revenue of the public administrations linked to transport in 1995 and 2000. From this information, the possibility to estimate the net public transfers towards the different mode of transport modes is analysed.

    Working Paper 20-08
  • Comptes satellites des transports en 2000 - Activités de support à la politique fédérale de mobilité et transport
    Satellietrekeningen Transport in 2000 - Activiteiten ter ondersteuning van het federale mobiliteits- en vervoersbeleid [30/09/2008]

    Planning Paper 106
  • Perspectives à long terme du transport en Belgique : Scénario de référence et deux scénarios alternatifs
    Langetermijn vooruitzichten van transport in België: Referentiescenario en twee beleidsscenario’s [30/06/2008]

    Working Paper 12-08
  • The PLANET Model: Methodological Report [16/05/2008]

    The PLANET model is a model of the Belgian Federal PLANning Bureau that models the relationship between the Economy and Transport. Its aim is to produce: (i) medium- and long-term projections of transport demand in Belg ium, both for passenger and freight transport; (ii) simulations of the effects of transport policy measures; (iii) cost-benefit analyses of transport policy measures. The methodological report describes the main features of the PLANET model.

    Working Paper 10-08
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