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The FPB’s studies cover 11 main themes: Energy, Environmental economic accounts and analyses, International economy, Labour market, Macroeconomic forecasts and analyses, Public finances, Sectoral accounts and analyses, Social protection, demography and prospective studies, Structural studies, Sustainable development, Transport.

Globalisation, international trade and offshoring



The pharmaceutical industry in Belgium - Competitiveness analysis [09/05/2019]

This Working Paper analyses the competitive position of the pharmaceutical industry over the 2000-2017 period. The evolution of price/cost competitiveness and non-cost competitiveness is studied based on a comparison with our neighbouring countries France, the Netherlands and Germany, and with Denmark, Ireland, Slovenia and Switzerland. The study also analyses a series of global factors and factors specific to the pharmaceutical industry that may influence competitiveness.

Value chain integration of export-oriented and domestic market manufacturing firms - An analysis based on a heterogeneous input-output table for Belgium [26/09/2018]

This working paper presents a breakdown of manufacturing industries in the 2010 Belgian input-output tables into export-oriented and domestic market firms. Analyses based on these tables show that export-oriented manufacturers generate a substantial amount of value added in other Belgian firms through their exports. Hence, in terms of policy, export promotion must take into account the value chain for producing exports.



The integration of the global economy has progressed over the past decades through fast growing international trade and cross-border investment. It has been pushed by technological developments, trade liberalisation and the opening up of the economies of big countries like China, India and Brazil. Nowadays, the production of many goods and services is organised in global production networks. For Belgium, this may lead to offshoring, i.e. the relocation abroad of economic activities, but it also provides the chance to attract new activities.

What are the consequences for Belgium of this enhanced economic integration? What determines our competitiveness? Do we need to fear massive relocation of jobs? How do Belgian firms integrate in global production chains? What are the possible policy responses to these challenges?

These issues are addressed in FPB work on international trade and offshoring.

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