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The FPB’s studies cover 11 main themes: Energy, Environmental economic accounts and analyses, International economy, Labour market, Macroeconomic forecasts and analyses, Public finances, Sectoral accounts and analyses, Social protection, demography and prospective studies, Structural studies, Sustainable development, Transport.

Other projects





Total cost of ownership of car powertrains in Belgium [29/06/2023]

We present a total cost of ownership (TCO) analysis per market segment and powertrain of new cars sold in Belgium. We differentiate our results between cars sold to private households and company cars. Even though the median TCO of electric cars is lower than the median TCO of conventional powertrains in several market segments, there is a significant overlap in the TCOs of different powertrains in each market segment. It is therefore important to consider the whole distribution of the TCO.




In order to supplement, deepen and increase the value of the research carried out by the FPB in the field of transport outlooks for Belgium, the FPB is taking part in other projects alone or in collaboration with universities or other research institutes.

Regional transport model for Wallonia

In 2014 the Federal Planning Bureau has conducted a feasibility study on a regional model for a prospective diagnosis of the transport demand in Wallonia at the request of the Direction Générale Opérationnelle de la Mobilité et des Voies hydrauliques (DGO2). This study is organized around three main tasks:

  • The identification of data requirements, collection or, where relevant, the construction method for the required data at district or regional level;
  • The identification and the description of parameters subject to regionalization in the national PLANET model;
  • The methodological adjustments necessary to take into account the regional specificities and the geographical breakdown level by district.


PROLIBIC is a cluster of four transport research projects (PROMOCO, LIMOBEL, BIOSES and CLEVER) that is financed by the Belgian Science Policy Office as part of the research programme “Science for Sustainable Development – SSD – Transport and Mobility”. The other research partners are the Vlaamse Instelling voor Technologisch Onderzoek (VITO) ( and the MOSI-Transport en Logistiek Department of the Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB) (

The main objectives of the project are:

  • to gather and combine the knowledge gained within the framework of four research projects: PROMOCO (Professional mobility and company car ownership), LIMOBEL (Long-run impacts of policy packages on mobility in Belgium), BIOSES (Biofuels Sustainable End uSe) and CLEVER (Clean Vehicle Research: Life Cycle Analysis and Policy Measures). It mainly concerns results for transport activities and environmental impact;
  • to elaborate a long-term reference projection (2030) for passenger and freight transport;
  • to estimate the impact of a transport policy package (development of biofuels and of electric vehicles, harmonisation of excise duties on petrol and diesel, road pricing);
  • to study the link between company cars and environmental considerations.

The project was finalised in September 2012. The final report is available on the website of the Belgian Science Policy Office: see website


LIMOBEL (Long-run Impacts of policy packages on MObility in BELgium) is a project financed by the Belgian Science Policy Office and carried out under the research programme “Science for Sustainable Development – SSD – Transport and Mobility”. The other research partners are the Transport & Mobility Group of the Catholic university of Mons ( and the Vlaamse Instelling voor Technologisch Onderzoek (VITO) (

The LIMOBEL project aims to develop a framework to:

  • produce long-term transport projections for Belgium;
  • analyse the long-term effects of policy measures on mobility in Belgium;
  • carry out a social cost-benefit analysis of these measures.

LIMOBEL covers three interconnected areas: transport and mobility, energy and environmental issues. Transport offers many advantages but also causes inconveniences such as congestion, accidents and environmental costs. Public intervention is required to address these nuisances and thus make the transport system more sustainable.

LIMOBEL uses two approaches to investigate these issues. The first only covers the transport branch and is thus of the partial equilibrium type. It is dynamic and long-term oriented (up to 2030). In it, three existing models were refined and connected to each other (PLANET, NODUS and E-MOTION). The second approach is of the general equilibrium type, based on interactions between the transport sector and the rest of the economy. In this approach, an applied general equilibrium model for Belgium and its three Regions is used.

The project was finalised in January 2011. The final report is available on the website of the Belgian Science Policy Office (see website).


The MOBIDIC Project, or ‘Demography, Geography and Mobility: Long-Term Outlooks and Policies for a Sustainable Development’, is a study financed by the Belgian Science Policy Office within the framework of the research programme ‘Sustainable Modes of Production and Consumption – PADD II’. The other partners of the project are GéDAP (Groupe d’étude de démographie appliquée) for the UCL (Université catholique de Louvain), and GRT (Groupe de Recherche sur les Transports, for the University of Namur.

The objective of the project is threefold:

  • to analyse the effect of the evolution of geographic, socio-demographic and economic factors on passenger transport flows and modal choice of transport in Belgium;
  • to elaborate long-term projections (2030) for passenger transport between the 43 Belgian administrative districts. To do this, the above factors are taken into account as well as the contribution of each administrative district to the production of transport flows, for each journey purpose and each mode of transport;
  • to evaluate the emissions generated by passenger transport for the outlooks.

The project was finalised in April 2006. The final report is available on the website of the Belgian Science Policy Office (



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