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The FPB’s studies cover 11 main themes: Energy, Environmental economic accounts and analyses, International economy, Labour market, Macroeconomic forecasts and analyses, Public finances, Sectoral accounts and analyses, Social protection, demography and prospective studies, Structural studies, Sustainable development, Transport.

Income distribution and poverty




The Gender Pension Gap as an indicator of gender inequality in old age in the EU [25/04/2024]

The Gender Pension Gap (GPG) and the Gender Pension Coverage Gap (GPCG) are indicators of inequality between genders concerning pensions. This report discusses the extent and evolution of the GPG and GPCG in the EU countries. Also, these measures are evaluated as to their quality as indicators of gender inequality in old age, and proposals for possible improvements are made. 

The Gender Pension Gap, past gender labour market inequalities and pension systems in the EU [25/04/2024]

The Gender Pension Gap (GPG) shows much variation between the EU Member States. This report analyses the links between the GPG, aspects of pension systems and gender inequalities on the labour market in past decades.

Minimum regulations, pension credits and the gender pension gap [30/01/2024]

This report shows that minimum regulations (minimum pensions and the minimumright per career year) and pension credits diminish pension inequality between men and women. If we assume that there are no minimum regulations, the pension gap would be 37% instead of 31%. If we assume that pension credits are not granted, the gap would be 43% instead of 31%. The pension credit part-time work with maintenance of pension rights, one specific type of pension credit, has a limited impact. Without this pension credit, the pension gap would increase with 0.4 percentage points.

Derived rights and the gender pension gap. On the importance of survivor and divorce pensions in women and men’s pension income [31/05/2023]

The results of this report show that the average pension of women is lower than that of men: in december 2017 the average gross pension of women aged 65 and older was 1469 euros, compared to 1920 euros for men. The gender pension gap thus equals 24%. The fact that this gap is not higher can to an important extent be attributed to the existence of derived rights. Without derived rights the gap would be 50%.



Besides examining the impact of ageing on the financial sustainability of pensions, the FPB also studies the distributional aspects of a variety of income support measures with a particular focus on pension measures and welfare benefits for the elderly.

Methods and tools

The efficiency of statutory pensions and social aid in fighting poverty and the evolution of poverty levels are analysed using various databases. Besides, the following tools are also used:

  • MALTESE is the model used to study the effects of the evolution of socio-economic behaviours as well as of policy measures on the evolution of benefit ratios within the context of population ageing.
  • MIDAS is a dynamic microsimulation model based on a representative sample of the population obtained from administrative data, it provides long-term projections of the risk of poverty of pensioners, the degree of pension inequality and other indicators of pension adequacy.
  • EXPEDITION is a static micro-simulation model that calculates the direct impact of a number of income support measures on the income distribution. The simulated measures fall within the scope of social security and aid, regulations on child benefits, the contribution and withholding rules applied to these benefits and the rules on personal income tax.


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