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The FPB’s studies cover 11 main themes: Energy, Environmental economic accounts and analyses, International economy, Labour market, Macroeconomic forecasts and analyses, Public finances, Sectoral accounts and analyses, Social protection, demography and prospective studies, Structural studies, Sustainable development, Transport.

Knowledge Centre on Pensions




Minimum regulations, pension credits and the gender pension gap [30/01/2024]

This report shows that minimum regulations (minimum pensions and the minimumright per career year) and pension credits diminish pension inequality between men and women. If we assume that there are no minimum regulations, the pension gap would be 37% instead of 31%. If we assume that pension credits are not granted, the gap would be 43% instead of 31%. The pension credit part-time work with maintenance of pension rights, one specific type of pension credit, has a limited impact. Without this pension credit, the pension gap would increase with 0.4 percentage points.

Derived rights and the gender pension gap. On the importance of survivor and divorce pensions in women and men’s pension income [31/05/2023]

The results of this report show that the average pension of women is lower than that of men: in december 2017 the average gross pension of women aged 65 and older was 1469 euros, compared to 1920 euros for men. The gender pension gap thus equals 24%. The fact that this gap is not higher can to an important extent be attributed to the existence of derived rights. Without derived rights the gap would be 50%.



The Knowledge Centre on Pensions was established by the Act of 21 May 2015. It gathers knowledge on pensions that is available in the various administrations, public institutions and public agencies.

The same Act also established a steering committee to gather knowledge on pensions and coordinate work. The FPB has a representative on that committee and provides the secretariat.

The Knowledge Centre provides technical assistance to the National Pension Committee, and the ministers in charge of pensions. In addition, the Knowledge Centre is in charge of assessing, mainly from a budgetary point of view, of decided reforms. At the request of its interlocutors, it also evaluates proposals of measures and reforms.

Methods and tools

The budgetary impact of (proposals for) pension reforms is assessed using the MALTESE model (with the peripheral models PENSION, MOSES and PUBLIC respectively for the pensions of the employees' scheme, the self-employed scheme and the public sector scheme) (see Financial evolution of social protection).

The social impact of (future) pension reforms is simulated and analysed using the MIDAS model (see Income distribution and poverty) and the EXPEDITION model (see Income distribution and poverty), including more specifically the REPLICA model which focuses on pensions.


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