To promote transparency and provide information, the Federal Planning Bureau regularly publishes the methods and results of its works. The publications are organised in different series, such as Outlooks, Working Papers and Planning Papers. Some reports can be consulted here, along with the Short Term Update newsletters that were published until 2015. You can search our publications by theme, publication type, author and year.
This publication presents the main results of the demographic outlook for Belgium: population, households, births, deaths, international migration and internal migration. To show the sensitivity of the results to some assumptions, three alternative scenarios are analysed: one linked to the health crisis (Covid-19), another modifying the long-term mortality assumption and a last one adjusting the assumption on international emigration.
Forecasts & Outlook - FOR_POP2070_12389 (fr), (nl),
The 2020-2070 demographic outlook presents the evolution of the population and households in Belgium from 2020 to 2070. In addition to updating future demographic trends, this outlook is built on a specific scenario related to the COVID-19 pandemic. Population growth in 2020 and 2021 will be very moderate, particularly as a result of the impact of COVID on mortality and international migration
Forecasts & Outlook - FOR_DP20_12326 (fr), (nl),
This Working Paper presents the methodology that has been applied since 2020 in the model used to draw up the population outlook for Belgium. The methodology considers that fertility is explained by both structural (education, labour market participation, etc.) and cyclical factors (the economic cycle, etc.). Those factors are taken into account through three elements: (1) expert opinion on long-term fertility trends, (2) an explicit trend in the fertility schedule and (3) the effect of cyclical and structural determinants of fertility using an error-correction model.
Planning & Working Papers - WP 03-20 (en),
Report - REP_POP1970 (fr), (nl),
The 2019-2070 demographic outlook presents the evolution of the population and households in Belgium from 2019 to 2070.
The outlook also highlights the impact of alternative fertility scenarios on population growth. In the light of fertility trends and population ageing, it also confirms the key role of international migration in population growth.
Forecasts & Outlook - EFPOP1970 (fr), (nl),
The 2018-2070 demographic outlook presents the evolution of the population and households in Belgium from 2018 to 2070. The assumptions have been updated, taking into account new observations available, in particular population statistics as at 1 January 2018 and movements (births, deaths, internal and international migration) for 2017. The outlook also provides specific insight into medium-term fertility rates.
Forecasts & Outlook - EFPOP1870 (fr), (nl),
This paper explores the possibility of building a multiregional migration model at the EU level based on Eurostat statistics on migration by country of previous and next residence, by country of birth or by citizenship. These statistics are used to build a consistent origin-destination matrix for the EU Member States. In this case, ’consistent’ means that the sum of all intra-EU movements should be equal to 0. This matrix is then used to compute migration rates between EU countries, which can be inserted into a multiregional population projection model.
This paper shows that the currently available official statistics on migration flows can be used to build a multiregional migration model at the EU level. Although more developments should be implemented to test and improve the model, it produces promising results.
Planning & Working Papers - Working Paper 07-18 (en),
The Federal Planning Bureau publishes its 2017-2070 demographic projections for Belgium. This exercise notably reveals the impact of the disappearance of the baby boom generation, as well as certain regional differences.
Forecasts & Outlook - EFPOP1770 (fr), (nl),
This Working Paper analyses various alternative population projections. The first approach shows the impact of alternative future development scenarios for the population growth components. The effects of some of these scenarios on the development in social expenditure and the at-risk-of-poverty rate for pensioners are also analysed. The second approach consists in carrying out a sensitivity analysis of the population projection to some model parameters, in particular the observation periods selected to estimate trends.
Planning & Working Papers - Working Paper 01-18 (fr),
Forecasts & Outlook - EFPOP1660 (fr), (nl),
This Working Paper presents the projection methodology for internal migration, which is integrated from 2016 in the population projections published by the Federal Planning Bureau and Statistics Belgium. The methodology is based on migration intensity between districts, rather than on emigration rates from one district to another. With migration intensity, not only is the population of the departure district taken into account (population at risk of moving) but also the population of the destination district (as a proxy for attractiveness). The short-term evolution of migration intensity is in line with the most recent trends observed in a series of preferential migration flows between districts. In the long term, migration intensity is assumed to be constant.
Planning & Working Papers - Working Paper 10-16 (en),
The Federal Planning Bureau and Statistics Belgium have updated their demographic projections. Belgium’s population should grow by about 85,000 inhabitants both in 2016 and 2017. Half of this growth is due to the additional flow of refugees. However important, this population increase is not exceptional; such increases have already been recorded in recent years, for example between 2007 and 2011. Over the long term, the average population growth should reach 40,000 inhabitants a year between 2020 and 2060 (against 50,000 inhabitants over the 1991-2014 period).
Forecasts & Outlook - EFPOP1560 (fr), (nl),
Report - REP_CEP_03 (mix),
This Working Paper presents the methodological progress made in projecting international migration. The new methodology is notably based on an analysis of migration flows per nationality and on statistics on reasons for migrating, in order to assess whether economic variables constitute relevant determinants of migration. If they do, the impact of economic determinants on immigration is estimated using econometric methods. The methodology also takes into account the increasing globalization and mobility as well as the expected growth of the global population which boost international migration flows (immigration and emigration). Finally, it grants more stability to the long-term migration projections and, therefore, to the population projections; the annual revisions of long-term migration will be less dependent on the short-term evolution of migration flows.
Planning & Working Papers - Working Paper 02-15 (en), (fr),
The Federal Planning Bureau and Statistics Belgium have updated their demographic projections until 2060. Belgium’s population should grow from 11.2 million in 2014 to 11.9 million in 2030 (+7%) and 13.1 million in 2060 (+17%). The number of private households in Belgium should rise from 4.8 million in 2013 to 5.3 million in 2030 (+10%) and 5.9 million in 2060 (+23%).
These results are based on a set of hypotheses regarding the future evolution of birth and death rates, international and domestic migration and, as far as households are concerned, the evolution of the different ways of living together. One chapter of the publication deals with prospective mortality rates, which allows projecting « period » life expectancies (cross-sectional approach) and « generational » life expectancies (cohort approach).
Forecasts & Outlook - EFPOP1460 (fr), (nl),
This Working Paper presents the methodology the Federal Planning Bureau currently utilizes to draw up the Belgian household projections by 2060. This methodology allows for detailed projections of the number of households (at the district level) by household type and according to the factual situation and not the legal situation. Thus, the projections include the different forms of living arrangements, such as cohabitation, single-parent families, single households, etc. They also guarantee the coherence with the national population projections which have been published by the Federal Planning Bureau and the Directorate-General of Statistics for several years and are based on the so-called component method.
Planning & Working Papers - Working Paper 09-14 (fr),
The Federal Planning Bureau and the Directorate-General Statistics and Economic Information have updated their demographic projections until 2060. Belgium’s population should grow from 11.1 million in 2013 to 11.9 million in 2030 (+7%) and 12.5 million in 2060 (+13%). The number of private households in Belgium should rise from 4.8 million in 2013 to 5.3 million in 2030 (+11%) and 5.8 million in 2060 (+21%).
Forecasts & Outlook - EFPOP1360 (fr), (nl),
Since many years, Statistics Belgium (Directorate General Statistics and Economic Information - DGSEI) and the Belgian Federal Planning Bureau (FPB) have annually produced official population projections for Belgium at the NUTS3 level used by official Belgian institutions and in several short-, medium-, and long-term projection models (such as economic projections, income poverty, long-term healthcare expenditures, energy, transport) and for specific projects or demands. Aside from these official population projections, interest for household projections is growing. Indeed, understanding the population in this dimension is very useful for numerous aspects of social life (expansion of single-parent households - often mothers - or of isolated households with old persons who are at higher risk of poverty problems or short of support) and of economic life (impact on consumption, taxation, housing, mobility, etc). To do so, a household projection model for Belgium, calibrated on the Belgian population projection at the NUTS 3 level, is under development. The objective of this paper is to describe the model and to present the provisional results.
Speech & presentations - SP131029 (en), (en),
Forecasts & Outlook - EFPOP2013 (fr), (nl),
Speech & presentations - SP130425_01 (fr),
Speech & presentations - SP121023_01 (fr),
Speech & presentations - SP120614_01 (fr),
Speech & presentations - SP120308_01 (nl),
Forecasts & Outlook - EFPOP2011 (fr), (nl),
Speech & presentations - SP100331_01 (fr),